Druidic Timeline

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4000 BC

  • Approximate date of first documented Proto- Indo European culture, which is believed Druidic, near the Black Sea.

ca 3500 - 3000 BC

  • First appearance of long barrows and chambered tombs; at Hambledon Hill (Dorset), the primitive burial rite known as "corpse exposure" was practiced, wherein bodies were left in the open air to decompose or be consumed by animals and birds.

ca 1500 BC

  • Stone circles seem to fall into disuse and decay around this time, perhaps due to a re-orientation of the society's religious attitudes and practices; burial mounds cease to be constructed; burials made near stone circles or in flat cemetaries.

900 – 500 BC

  • Hallstat Period. (Rise of the Celts)

500 – 450 BC

  • Druids, the intellectual class of the Celts (their own word for themselves, meaning "the hidden people"), begin a thousand year floruit. The foundation of Druidic wisdom colleges in Gaul (France) and the British Isles.

End of Hallstat Period, begin of La Tene period (Celtic heroic age, times of mythology).

70 BC

  • Druids arrive in Britain and gain control of the ruling classes.

15 BC

  • End of La Tene period. Begin of Roman control in Celtic nations.

14 - 37 CE

  • Druids are wiped out in Gaul by Tiberius.

54 CE

  • Claudius prohibited the existence of Druids.

59 CE

  • Suetonius Paulinus begins to clear Britain from the Druids.

ca 60 CE

  • The Roman Emperor's fiscal Procurator, Decianus Catus, attempts to make a full inventory of the Iceni estates. In the process he caused a minor clash which ended with Boudica being flogged and her daughters raped. The Druids used this event as a focus for anti-Roman rebellion.

61 CE

  • Roman forces, led by Suetonius Paulinus, attack and massacre a Celtic settlement on Mona (Anglesey), destroying sacred sites and artifacts. Druids participate in the battle. Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni, rebels and leads the uprising against the Roman occupiers, but after coming close to clearing the island of Romans, she is defeated by the Roman governor, Suetonius Paulinus.

266 CE

  • Cormac Ulfhada, "Mac Art", 115th Milesian Monarch in Ireland choked on a fish bone and dies. He was the wisest, most learned, and the best of any of the Milesian race before him, that ruled the country. He had a retinue of 1150 persons, in daily attendence at his GREAT HALL of TARA. It was 300 feet long. He ordained that there be 10 persons in constant attendence to him and all future Kings: A nobleman as companion, a judge, an historian to declare and preserve the genealogies, acts, and occurences of the nobility and gentry, a Druid to offer sacrifice and presage good or bad omens, a poet to praise or dispraise everyone, a physician, a musician, and three stewards. Seven years before his death, he became a Christian and forbade his Druids to worship their gods.

432 CE

  • St. Patrick arrives in Ireland and spreads Christianity. Foundation of the Celtic Church. Several Druids may have converted to Christianity by now.

In the early part of the fourth century the Celtic church had a complete organization, with its bishops and metropolitans.

ca 445 - 449 CE

  • Merlin may have been born around this time. Merlin (traditionally Myrddin) will grow to become one of the greatest Druids in history.

456 CE

  • The legend of Vortigern and the Prophecies of Merlin may have taken place around this time.

465 CE

  • According to medieval Arthurian legend, Merlin helps Uther by changing his appearance into that of Gorlois, so Queen Igraine would make love to Uther, thinking him her husband Gorlois. Igraine will give birth to Arthur after 9 months.

ca 480 CE

  • Merlin arranges the sword-in-the-stone contest to put Arthur on the throne, after Uther's death. Merlin helps Arthur with the formation of the Round Table.

530 – 540 CE

  • Mass migration of Celtic monks to Brittany (the "third migration"). Celtic church survives in northern and western districts of Britain.

ca 550 CE

  • Time of Taliesin and Aneirin -Welsh poets who penned the first written Welsh known - in Scotland.

573 CE

  • The Battle of Arfderyd, where (possibly another) Merlin travels north, after Camlann, to the court of King Gwendoleu of Caer-Guenoleu (north of the Salway) where the locals call him Lailoken (or Llallogan). He is a bard and a lawgiver in Dyved, a region in southern Wales. Shortly afterward, a war breaks out between Merlin's Royal master and the three allies, King Riderch Hael (the Generous) of Strathclyde and Kings Peredyr & Gwrgi of Ebrauc (York). Gwendoleu is killed in the ensuing Battle of Ardderyd (Arthuret) and Merlin, sent mad with grief at the death of his nephew and four brothers, flees into the Caledonian Forest. He lived there in a mad frenzy for over a year, becoming known as Myrddin Wylt (the Wild), before Riderch, who was his brother-in-law, found him and brought him to safety in the Strathclyde Court.

Taliesin informs Merlin that he has visited the Isle of Avalon, bringing with him Arthur, who was wounded in the battle of Camlann, on a ship belonging to Barinthus. The Isle of Avalon is ruled by nine sisters, sorceresses who are famous healers. Morgan le Fay, more beautiful and powerful than her sisters, told Taliesin that they could heal the king, only if Arthur stayed with them. The future of Britain is uncertain and bleak, so Taliesin wants to return Arthur to his kingdom, but Merlin informs the bard that it is not yet time for Arthur's return.

574 CE

  • Columba (who converted much of England to Christianity) returned to Ireland to beg for the sacred Druid oak trees, alas, in vain.

596 CE

  • Augustine obtained a conference with some of the Celtic bishops (a numerous Christian population still existed in the northern and western districts) at a place that from that time was called Augustine's oak, on the Severn. Augustine's demand to the Celtic clergy was, "Acknowledge the authority of the bishop of Rome." "We desire to love all men," they replied, "and whatever we do for you, we will do for him also whom you call the Pope." Surprised and indignant at their refusal, Augustine exhorted them to adopt the Roman usage as to the celebration of Easter, the tonsure, and the administration of baptism, that a uniformity of discipline and worship might be established in the island. This they refused to do. Having received Christianity at first not from Rome but from the East, and never having acknowledged the Roman church as their mother, they looked upon themselves as independent of the See of Rome. A second and a third council were held, but with no better results. Augustine was plainly told that the Celtic church would acknowledge no man as supreme in the Lord's vineyard.

635 CE

  • Celtic Church at odds with Rome.

640 CE

  • May, 13: St. Eligius is appointed as the bishop of Noyon-Tournai in 640, and works for twenty years to convert the pagan population of Flanders where the last Druid practices still survive. He travels from Antwerp to Frisia, undertaking the conversion of the Flemings, Frisians, Suevi, and the barbarian tribes along the North Sea coast. St. Eligius is particularly honored in Flanders, in the province of Antwerp, and at Tournai, Kortrijk, Ghent, Bruges, and Douai.

664 CE

  • The Synod of Whitby is hosted by St. Hilda. It is called to discuss whether the Northern British should comply with the doctrines of Rome, rather than follow the Irish Celtic practices of Iona. Bishop (& Saint) Colman of Lindisfarne, Abbess (& Saint) Hilda of Whitby and Bishop (& Saint) Cedd of Essex speak for the established Celtic ways (with Cedd as interpreter). They are opposed by Abbot (& Saint) Wilfred of Ripon and the former Bishop (& Saint) Agilbert of Dorchester. The latter are triumphant and St. Colman resigns his See in protest. He is replaced by Tuda who dies of the Plague soon afterward. Tuda is then succeeded as Abbot, by St. Eata former Abbot of Ripon who brings his prior, St. Cuthbert, from Melrose Abbey to Lindisfarne. St. Wilfred is appointed Bishop of Northumbria and transfers the See from Lindisfarne to York. Bishop Cedd of Essex also dies of Plague, along with his brother, Cynebil, at his foundation of Lastingham Priory. Cedd is buried there and later revered as a saint. He is succeeded, as Abbot, by his brother, St. Chad, but the See of Essex at London remains vaccant.

672 CE

  • Archbishop Theodore legislates against the irregular practices of the Celtic church in England at the Synod of Hereford in the English midlands.

680 CE

  • St. Boniface educated at a Celtic Christian Monastery in Exeter.

700 CE

  • King Gerren of Dumnonia receives a letter from St. Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury, during his attendance at a Church Synod in Wessex. He insists that the Celtic Church of Dumnonia comply with the doctrines of Rome, as agreed with the Northern Celtic Church thirty-six years previously at the Synod of Whitby.

700 - 1700 CE

  • Period of Christian domination, and many persecutions of people accused of witchcraft. Druidism may have survived underground.

1626 CE

  • March, 26: John Aubrey, English antiquary and writer, is born.

1670 CE

  • November, 30: John Toland is born.

1697 CE

  • June: John Aubrey, English antiquary and writer, is born.

1710 CE

  • First known attempts to unify various Druid societies/groups in England. Druids slowly re-emerge from underground.

1717 CE

  • Toland's ceremony at Primrose Hill forms the basic of the formation of the Ancient Order of Druids. Delegates from Druidic and Bardic circles from all over Britain, Ireland, and Brittany meet at the Apple Tree Tavern at Covent Garden and form the first, modern Druidic Order by establishing themselves as the 'Mother Grove'. Toland is reported to have been elected and 'inaugurated' Chief Druid of this Order at Autumn Equinox of the same year, at Primrose Hill. It is from John Toland and the Primrose Hill gathering that the British Circle of the Church of the Universal Bond claims to be descended.

1722 CE

  • March, 11: John Toland dies. William Stukely becomes chief of AOD

1726 CE

  • John Toland publishes "The History of Celtic Religions and Learning".

1745 CE

  • William Stukely publishes "Abury: A temple of the British Druids". This man was singularly responsible for linking Stonehenge and the Druids.

1747 CE

  • Iolo Morganwg (Edward Williams) is born.

1757 CE

  • November, 28: William Blake is born.

1763 CE

  • William Stukeley dedicated a volume of sermons entitled, 'Palaeographica Sacra' ('Discussions on Sacred Subjects') which were steeped in Druid lore, to the Princess Dowager, styling her 'Princess Augusta as Veleda, Archdruidess of Kew' and took for himself the name, 'Chyndonax of Mount Haemus, Druid'. As a clergyman, Stukeley seemed determine to prove that Druidism was akin to Christianity. Stukeley argued that Druidism was the 'Natural Religion' arriving in Britain with the Phoenicians after the biblical flood, describing the earliest Druids as being of 'Abraham's Religion'.

1765 CE

  • Edward Finch Hatton succeeds William Stukely as chief of AOD.

1771 CE

  • David Samway succeeds Edward Finch Hatton as chief of AOD.

1799 CE

  • William Blake succeeds David Samway as chief of AOD.

1781 CE

  • November, 29: The Ancient Order of Druids is established in London by Henry Hurle. The Order drew much of its practices from the influence of William Stukeley, establishing themselves in practices inspired by the belief in the kinship of Druidism and Christianity. However, this incarnation of the early 'Druid Order', being arcane and inspired by Masonic tradition of the time, was generally exclusive and masculine in nature.

1792 CE

  • The first Druidic/Bardic gorsedd established by Iolo Morgannwg (Edward Williams). This leads to the founding of Bardic/Druidic Eistedfoddau in Wales.

1803 CE

  • Rev. Edward Davies publishes his Celtic Researches.

1806 CE

  • Rev. Edward Davies publishes "The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids".

1810 CE

  • A number of lodges within the Ancient Order of Druids began to admit people of lower classes, causing a division between the aristocracy and the working class membership.

1826 CE

  • Iolo Morganwg (Edward Williams) dies.

1827 CE

  • August, 21: William Blake dies. He is succeeded by Geoffrey Higgins as chief of AOD.

1829 CE

  • Godfrey Higgins publishes "The Celtic Druids".

1830 CE

  • First Grove of Druids in America founded in New York. Gradually the Order branches out in different parts of the USA.

1833 CE

  • William Carpenter succeeds Geoffrey Higgins as chief of AOD.
  • As the Ancient Order of Druids is being divided between the aristocracy and the working class membership, and seeks to make the Order into a source of financial relief, the poorer members break away from the AOD and reform themselves as the 'United Ancient Order of Druids'.

1838 CE

  • William Stukely publishes "Stonehenge:A Temple Restored to the British Druids".
  • The Breton scholar and antiquarian Hersant de la Villemarque initiated at Anglesa Gorsedd. He establishes a Druidic/Bardic grove in Brittany in 1855, named Breuriez Drarzad Bried (The Fraternity of Bards of Brittany).

1848 CE

  • Iolo Morganwg publishes the Iolo Manuscripts.

1851 CE

  • The first Druids' Lodge was set up in Australia in Melbourne.

1855 CE

  • The Breton scholar and antiquarian Hersant de la Villemarque establishes a Druidic/Bardic grove in Brittany, named Breuriez Drarzad Bried (The Fraternity of Bards of Brittany).

1857 CE

  • The United Ancient Order of Druids (UAOD) USA approaches British Orders to consider an amalgamation of all Druid societies throughout the world.

1858 CE

  • David William Nash publishes "Taliesin:The Bards and Druids of Britain".
  • California Grove No. 1 instituted at old Hangtown (now known as Placerville) under the leadership of the founder of California Druidism.

1861 CE

  • An effort to reunify Ancient Order of Druids England and the English United Ancient Order of Druids fails.
  • The first National Eisteddfod held at Aberdare.

1862 CE

  • Iolo Morganwg publishes the Barddas.

1869 CE

  • Nicholas Drummer, an American member of the United Ancient Order, founds a lodge in Paris. Afterwards, lodges are established in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand.

1874 CE

  • Edward Vaughan Kenealy succeeds William Carpenter as chief of AOD.
  • The Literary and Archaeological Order of Druids and the Ancient and Archaeological Order of Druids was founded by Robert Wentworth Little. Little was a Freemason and is perhaps better known as the founder of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA), the immediate predecessor of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. While many of the original members of the AAOD were Masons, Masonic membership was not originally required for admission. The purpose of the Ancient and Archaeological Order was to study the connections between Freemasonry and the druid tradition.

1880 CE

  • Gerald Massey succeeds Edward Vaughan Kenealy as chief of AOD.

1885 CE

  • The Druidic and National Church founded in Paris by Henry Lizeray.

1886 CE

  • The name of the Ancient Archaelogical Order of Druids (AAOD) was changed to Ancient Masonic Order of Druids (AMOD) and about two-thirds of the non-Masonic members were expelled from the Order. It was these expelled members who adopted the name Ancient Archaeological Order of Druids (AAOD) and attempted to revive the old order but it apparently died out around 1900.

1894 CE

  • James Bonwick publishes "Irish Druids and Old Irish Religions".

1897 CE

  • Fragments of a Druidic Lunar Calendar may be preserved in the Coligny calendar, fragments of a calendar engraved on a bronze tablet, discovered in 1897.

1906 CE

  • John Barry O'Callaghan succeeds Gerald Massey as chief of AOD.
  • H. Fricke, United Ancient Order of Druids of Germany, succeeds in arranging a meeting with UAOD England at Hull.

1908 CE

  • Foundation of the International Grand Lodge of Druidism at Munich with representatives from England, USA and Germany. This successfully combines elements of the Ancient Order of Druids, and the United Ancient Order of Druids.
  • August 15: Winston Churchill, confirmed Mason, is initiated as a Druid into the Albion Lodge of the Ancient Order of Druids at Blenheim. Churchills’ own association with both Freemasonry and Druidry were short-lived however and his interest in Druidry appears to have been wholly towards its fraternal character with little or no sympathy for its spirituality.

1909 CE

  • G. W. MacGregor-Reid succeeds John Barry O'Callaghan as chief of AOD.

1911 CE

  • John Arnott MacCulloch publishes "The Religion of the Ancient Celts".

1912 CE

  • June, 22: An American Freemason with Druidic interests, James Manchester, M.D. obtained a Charter from the Ancient Masonic Order of Druids in England for the Ancient Order of Masonic Druids in America (AOMDA) and founded the order in Boston, Massachusetts. He was a high-ranking Mason and belonged to Masonic Lodges both in America and in England. During the time he served as Grand Archdruid the organization was called the Ancient Order of Masonic Druids in America and only men who were also Masons were allowed to join.

1913 CE

  • Under the presidency of F. Askew (England) and with H. Fricke, Germany, as Vice-President a representative gathering of delegates from the Druid Orders of the world takes place in London. Australia, Sweden and New Zealand are present. Arrangements concluded for meeting in conference every five years. Interruption by World War I. Continued 1923.

1917 CE

  • One of the most dramatic events in Eisteddfod history was the award of the 1917 chair to the poet Ellis Humphrey Evans, bardic name Hedd Wyn, for the poem Yr Arwr (The Hero). The winner was announced, and the crowd waited for the winner to stand up to accept the traditional congratulations before the chairing ceremony, but no winner appeared. It was then announced that Hedd Wyn had been killed the previous month on the battlefield in Belgium. These events were portrayed in the Academy Award nominated film Hedd Wyn.

1928 CE

  • Cornish Gorsedd founded and inaugurated by Arch Druid Pedrog of Wales.

1933 CE

  • Bardic College founded in Gaul by Phileas Lebesque under the aegis of the Welsh and Breton gorsedds.

1936 CE

  • The Kredenn Giltick (Celtic Belief) founded in Brittany.
  • Robert Hayes replaces replaces James Manchester as Grand Archdruid of AOMDA.

1938 CE

  • Lewis Spence publishes "The History and Origins of Druidism".

1942 CE

  • A second Druidic College of Gaul established by Paul Bouchet (Bod Koad), independent of the earlier groups and not recognized by them.

1944 CE

  • The Ancient Order of Masonic Druids in America (AOMDA) may have started to admit women as members (or possibly 1945).

1946 CE

  • Robt. A. F. MacGregor-Reid succeeds G. W. MacGregor-Reid as chief of AOD.

1947 CE

  • The first International Eisteddfod is held in Llangollen, North Wales.

1949 CE

  • After World War II, Druid congress activities continue at Malmoe, Sweden. Denmark joins International Grand Lodge of Druidism.

1950 CE

  • Stuart Piggot publishes "William Stukeley:A Portrati of an Antiquarian", an indepth biography of Stukeley, the man who first started the myth that Druids built Stonehenge and sensationalized Druids in British culture. The Author, Stuart Piggot is a respected authority on Celtic Religion.
  • The Great Oak Forest Celtic College of Broceliande founded by Goff ar Steredennou.

1952 CE

  • Dr. Juliet Ashley became the Grand Archdruid of the Ancient Order of Masonic Druids in America (AOMDA) following the untimely death of Mr. Robert Hayes. Mrs. Hayes was the Archdruid of Fire and she resigned shortly after his death. The Archdruids of Water and Fire declined to become Grand Archdruid because of advancing age. This left the Order in somewhat of a pickle. Mrs. Hayes in her infinite wisdom convinced the two gentlemen to appoint Dr. Juliet Ashley and Dr. Rhodonn Starrus as Archdruids before her resignation became effective. With the two older Archdruids declining to advance, Dr. Starrus became Archdruid of Fire and Dr. Ashley became Grand Archdruid of Earth.

1955 CE

  • Norway joins International Grand Lodge of Druidism.

1956 CE

  • Death of John Owen (Archdruid).

1960 AD

  • The Great Oak Order re-established in France by Mic Goban, claiming descent from the ancient 'Order of Gawre.'

1963 CE

  • The Reformed Druids of North America (RDNA) founded at Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, by a number of students, out of objection to a policy mandating regular attendance of religious services. Though the formation of the group was inspired by little more than an intent to mock the policy of the college, many of their members found inspiration in the Druid Path and continued to participate in the group in order to explore world faiths and Earth-based religion. Many of the original members went on to form RDNA Groves in various other states.

1964 CE

  • Death of Robert MacGregor Reid, Chief of the Ancient Order of Druids in Britain. Upon his death, the Order splits up in two groups. A group of senior Druids disagrees with the election of MacGregor Reid's successor, Dr Thomas Maughan, and decide to form a reconstituted order with Ross as its Chief, and with the three grades of Bard, Ovate and Druid fully taught and recognized in a way that had not previously been done in the Order's modern cycle. Birth of the Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids.

1966 CE

  • The Ancient and Archaological Order of Druids was merged in 1966 with the Literary and Archaological Order of Druids to form the Universal Druidic Order, the new organisation being based in Blackheath, London. This merger ocurred under the guiding hand of Desmond Bourke the head of the Ancient and Archeaological Order and subsequently the Universal Druidic Order.

1968 CE

  • Stuart Piggot publishes "The Druids".
  • Isaac Bonewits is ordained a priest of the Reformed Druids of North America.

1969 CE

  • Founding of a RDNA grove in Berkeley by Isaac Bonewits and Robert Larson. Isaac Bonewits is ordained Druid priest.

1972 CE

  • The Massachusetts Masonic Grand Lodge told Grand Archdruid Rhodonn Starrus that that Grand Lodge had never recognized Ancient Order of Masonic Druids in America (AOMDA) and was not interested in doing so. By this time the Order was no longer in contact with its parent organization in England. The Grand Lodge in Colorado declined to recognize the AOMDA later that summer unofficially citing the fact the Order initiated women.

1974 CE

  • Druid members become active at the University of Oregon.
  • Isaac Bonewits establishes the "Schismatic Druids of North America" and "Hasidic Druids of North America" groves in Minneapolis.
  • Rhodonn Starrus replaces Juliet Ashley as Grand Archdruid of AOMDA (or 1972?).

1975 AD

  • The Philosophical Brotherhood of Druids founded in Brittany by Coaver Kalondan after a schism with the Breton gorsedd.
  • Ross Nichols, chosen chief of OBOD, dies. OBOD goes in a period of slumbering.

1976 CE

  • Christopher Sullivan succeeds Thomas L. Maughan as chief of AOD.
  • June, 22: The Ancient Order of Masonic Druids in America (AOMDA) officially changed its name to the Ancient Order of Druids in America (AODA). The bylaws are modified, no longer requiring all members to either be a Mason, be related by blood or marriage to a Mason or be recommended by a Mason. About one-third of the Masons resigned at that time including one of the Archdruids. History repeated itself in reverse ninety years after the first name change of the Order.

Switzerland joins International Grand Lodge of Druidism.

  • A Universal Fraternity of Druids established in France, independently of the earlier groups. They are the first modern group to be lead by a female Druid.

1978 AD

  • therford Ward publishes "The Druids:Magicians of the West".
  • uid Order of Avernia founded in the Auvergne region of Gaul.
  • aac Bonewits, being elected Archdruid at the RDNA, established the ‘Druids Chronicler’ as a national Druid publication (later known as the Pentalpha Journal), but he was forced to leave the organization after attempts to make the grove at Berkeley more neo-Pagan. This led to clashes with other long-term members. The Pentalpha Journal soon after folded.

1979 CE

  • therford Ward publishes "The Druids and the Heritage".
  • The Mother Grove of the British Druid Order (BDO) founded by Phillip Shallcrass.

1982 AD

  • Oaled Drwized Kornog (Hearth of the Western Druids) founded in Brittany by Goff ar Steredennou.

1983 CE

  • Isaac Bonewits leaves the Reformed Druids of North America and founds 'Ar nDraiocht Fein' or 'ADF', believing that a serious interest in a viable, neo-Pagan, Earth-based religion was emerging to which the RDNA, based on the motivations of its formations, was unable to minister to.

1984 CE

  • July, 13: Foundation of the Order of Druids in Ulster.

1986 CE

  • Celtic Traditionalist Order of Druids founded, to encompass a group of thoughts and practices that had been growing for some time. At that time, the practices, and indeed many of the thoughts themselves, of the Order are sketchy and just beginning to take shape.

1987 CE

  • Celtic Traditionalist Order of Druids becomes a living entity.
  • The "Henge of Keltria", a non-profit religious corporation dedicated to provide information, training, and networking to those who practice or who are interested in Keltrian Druidism, Druidism in general, or other Celtic Earth-based religions, is established.

1988 CE

  • École Druidique des Gaules founded by the Allobragmatos, Boduogmatos and Catuvolus.
  • Philip Carr-Gomm becomes chosen chief of OBOD.

1989 CE

  • Robert Johnson replaces Rhodonn Starrus as Grand Archdruid of AODA.

1990 CE

  • Ross Nichols publishes "The Book of Druidry". Cornardiia Druvidiacta Aremorica (Druid Brotherhood of Armorica) founded in Brittany after a split with the Kredenn Gieltiek.

1991 CE

  • Philip Carr-Gomm publishes "Elements of the Druid Tradition".

1992 CE

  • The Druid Clan of Dana established in Ireland. It is founded on the work of the Fellowship of Isis, established in 1976 by Rev. Lawrence Durdin-Robertson, Pamela Durdin-Robertson and the Hon. Olivia Robertson.

1993 CE

  • Philip Carr Gomm publishes "The Druid Way".
  • Rutherford Ward publishes "Celtic Lore:The History of the Druids and their Timeless Traditions".
  • Ross Nichols publishes "Prophet, Priest and King".
  • June, 21:The Insular Order of Druids (IOD) founded in UK at Stonehenge by Dylan ap Thuinn.
  • A further split in the Cornardia Druvidiacta Armorica results in the founding of the Armorican Brotherhood of the Sacred Law.
  • The Druidic Federation of Gaul founded by Pierre de la Crau out of the Druidic Church of Gaul and the Green Druidic Order of Ronan ap Lugh.

1994 CE

  • United Ancient Order of Druids founded in USA.

1995 CE

  • British Order of Free Druids (BOFD) started.
  • Cotswold Order of Druids (COD) For people in the Cotswold area, started.
  • Sisterhood of Avalon founded, working with the Avalonian traditions and the Old Religion of the Celtic Goddess.

1996 CE

  • International Grand Lodge of Druidism in Norway charters 1st Druid Lodge at Rejkjavik, Iceland.
  • November, 6: The Druidic Order of the Mithril Star, founded.

1998 CE

  • Robert Johnson, who also used the name Aerach Crann Crithaec, the fifth Grand Archdruid of the Ancient Order of Druids in America (AODA), sent a letter to all the Groves announcing that the order had been disbanded, after a series of internal trouble. Since this action had not been approved by any of the other Archdruids, it had no legal validity, but many people left the order at that time. Betty Reeves becomes Grand Archdruid of AODA instead.
  • The "Albidatla Druidion Arduina", or "Assemblée Universelle des Druides d’Arduina" is founded in Belgium by Raphaël Zander. The ADA is a druidic college of pantheistic and pagan orientation. They study all the aspects of druidism: history, mythology, beliefs, symbols, sciences.
  • Nomadic Order of Minstrels, Artisans and Druids (NOMAD) For Druidic Travelers and friends, started.

1999 CE

  • August: The Virtual Druid order (VDO) founded.
  • August, 11: Druid Order of Albion in the UK founded by Chris Turner on Solar Eclipse.

2000 CE

  • Druid Order of Albion opened to the external world.
  • An Faoi Dhraíocht Draoi Oardyr, The Enchanted Druid Order or EDO, founded in the USA, areas of Washington DC, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia.
  • May 21: The Senior Church of England and the British Druid Order plan a conference designed to help "reconcile" the traditions, for the new Millenium, much to the alarm of several Church leaders.

2001 CE

  • First International Grand Lodge of Druidism Finland lodge chartered by UAOD Sweden.
  • August: The Gorsedd of Bards conducts, for the first time ever, a democratic vote on who should be the next Archdruid.

2002 CE

  • March: Gary Copeland, Libertarian, lists himself in the California state candidate voter guide as a "practicing Celtic Druid Unitarian". The Libertarian Activists believe that he will not be taken serious.
  • April 20: First International Grand Lodge of Druidism in The Netherlands chartered at Amsterdam.
  • August, 5: Rowan Williams, future Archbishop of Canterbury, joins the Order of the Gorsedd of Bards, being inducted as a Druid. This causes a stir in the Christian Church who condemn this as the paganism they oppose.
  • September, 8: Druid Copeland participated in a forum with other third-party gubernatorial candidates on Los Angeles radio station KABC-AM, with host Brian Whitman. After a bitter debate over immigration policies, during which Copeland repeatedly attempted to talk over Whitman, the host shut off Copeland's microphone. In response, Copeland started to walk out of the studio. He heard Whitman make an "insulting" remark, he said, so he turned around and spat on the host. The episode was broadcast live on the 50,000-watt station.
  • September, 14: The 15-member California LP executive committee passed a resolution rescinding its support for the Druid Copeland because of his "repugnant" and unprofessional conduct. Copeland is dropped as candidate for governer after he spit on a radio talk show host during an on-air interview.

2003 CE

  • John Michael Greer replaces Betty Reeves as Grand Archdruid of AODA.
  • Isaac Bonewits is ordained a priest of Ar nDraiocht Fein.
  • February, 1: New Order of Druids, Celtic and Druidic Community Cirlcle online on internet founded, providing Druidic training for free. The N.O.D. strives to bring wisdom to those people who have, because of situation or geographic location, don't otherwise have the possibility to learn.
  • May, 13 & 14: An organisational meeting is held for the South-Central Druid Coalition in Arkansas, USA.
  • May, 29: Druid Chris Warwick blesses the Millennium Bluestone at the Middleton Botanical Garden, which was originally intended to be transported to Stonehenge. Tourists are encouraged to touch or rub the stone, to bring them good luck.
  • June: The Ancient Masonic Order of Druids in England is reported to be still active.
  • June, 21: Beginning at the Summer Solstice, of a worldwide shamanic effort to restore balance to the Earth, by linking altars and sacred places in the world, a project called World-Soul Retrieval Day.

Hollywood star Ioan Gruffudd is made honorary member of the Gorsedd of the Bards at the national Eisteddfod.

  • September, 12: A man dressed as Arch Druid is arrested at a court hearing in Nottinghamshire, because he is wearing a ceremonial sword and dagger. The hearing concerns the company Bellway Homes that wants to remove a 300 years old beech tree, because it is blocking the route of a road to new houses set to be built there.
  • November, 30: The Druidic Seat Glastoratin is founded in Belgium. It is a religious organisation with the purpose to be a local addressing point for everyone devoted to the Druidic Tradition (and more particular the Gallo-Celtic tradition), one of Europe's traditional religions.

2004 CE

  • The International Eisteddfod was (unsuccessfully) nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by Terry Waite, who has been actively involved with the eisteddfod.
  • June 10: Druids hold chanting ceremonies to help catch the vandals that defaced the Rollright Stones on the Oxfordshire/Warwickshire border with yellow gloss paint.
  • June 22: Robyn Lews, Arch Druid of Wales and ceremonial leader of the Gorsedd of Bards, requests that Stonehenge is returned to Wales.
  • July 7: The movie "King Arthur" is released, portraying King Arthur as a late Roman warrior, while Merlin and Guinevere are Woads. Even though Excalibur and the Round Table are included as well, the movie tells an entirely different story then the traditional legends. The movie is filmed in Ireland, and one of the starring actors is the Welshman Ioan Gruffudd (honorary member of the Gorsedd of the Bards in 2003) as Lancelot, for who it took months to grow the scraggly beard for his character in the movie, while, due to his Celtic heritage, the beard kept growing in red and had to be "painted" each day before filming, to match his brown hair. The song "Song of Exile" sung by Vanora in the movie, is written by Caitlín Matthews, who is also an author of several Celtic and Druid books.
  • July 9: The British Druid Merlin Michael Williams is arrested for carrying a sword while shopping at the Wilkinson Hardware store.
  • July 14: The British Druid Merlin Michael Williams appears before court hearing in Portsmouth for carrying a sword while shopping at the Wilkinson Hardware store.
  • August 3: The Crown Prosecution Service decides it is not in the public interest to prosecute Merlin Michael Williams, of Edgell Road, Emsworth, Hampshire, who was arrested for carrying a sword while shopping at the Wilkinson Hardware store.
  • December, 21: Josh Boyd Cox, a 13-year-old boy is made a Druid at Avebury.


  • September, 2: The first meeting of Nervii Nemeton takes place, thus establishing the Mother Grove of the New Order of Druids in Antwerp, Belgium.


  • May, 27: The New Order of Druids becomes an official organisation in Belgium, and therefore the first Dutch Druid organisation in the history of Belgium and Flanders.
  • December, 21: The Foundation for Engaged Druidism is founded by James Liter and Jason Kirkey.
  • November, 10: The New Order of Druids releases its first edition of Oran Mor, the quarterly Celtic e-zine for upgraded members of the N.O.D.


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  • February, 6: - Loïc Gwennglan Le Scouëzec, Breton writer and Grand Druid of Brittany, dies (born November 11, 1929).
  • April, 15: The Druid Merlin Michael Williams hands in his sword to the police station where it was confiscated in July 2004. He does this to promote world peace and to show that Druids are peace-loving and non-violent.
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